How to fix CPU usage problem in 12c due to DBMS_FEATURE_AWR

I love my job because I always have suprises. This week’s surprise has been another problem related to SQL Plan Directives in 12c. Because it is a common problem that potentially affects ALL the customers, I am glad to share the solution on my blog ūüėÄ

Symptom of the problem: High CPU usage on the server

My customer’s DBA team has spotted a consistent high CPU utilisation on its servers:

spd_awr_high_cpu_sar

Everyday, at the same time, and for 20-40 minutes, the servers hosting the Oracle databases run literally out of CPU.

spd_awr_high_cpu_em

 

Troubleshooting

Ok, it would be too easy to give the solution now. If you cannot wait, jump at the end of this post. But what I like more is to explain how I came to it.

First, I gave a look at the processes consuming CPU. Most of the servers have many consolidated databases on them. Surprisingly, this is what I have found:

spd_awr_high_cpu_m001It seems that the source of the problem is not a single database, but all of them. Isn’t it? And I see another pattern here: the CPU usage comes always from the [m001] process, so it is not related to a user process.

My customer has Diagnostic Pack so it is easy to go deeper, but you can get the same result with other free tools like s-ash, statspack and snapper. However, this is what I have found in the Instance Top Activity:

spd_awr_high_cpu_instOk, everything comes from a single query with sql_id auyf8px9ywc6j. This is the full sql_text:

It looks like something made by a DBA, but it comes from the MMON.

Looking around, it seems closely related to two PL/SQL calls that I could find in the SQL Monitor and that systematically fail every day:

spd_cpu_sql_monitorDBMS_FEATURE_AWR function calls internally the SQL auyf8px9ywc6j.

The MOS does not know anything about that query, but the internet does:

spd_awr_franckOh no, not Franck again! He always discovers new stuff and blogs about it before I do ūüôā

In his blog post, he points out that the query fails because of error ORA-12751 (resource plan limiting CPU usage) and that  it is a problem of Adaptive Dynamic Sampling. Is it true?

What I like to do when I have a problematic sql_id, is to run sqld360 from Mauro Pagano, but the resulting zip file does not contain anything useful, because actually there are no executions and no plans.

During the execution of the statement (or better, during the period with high CPU usage), there is an entry in v$sql, but no plans associated:

And this is very likely because the statement is still parsing, and all the time is due to the Dynamic Sampling. But because the plan is not there yet, I cannot check it in the DBMS_XPLAN.DISPLAY_CURSOR.

I decided then to trace it with those two statements:

At the next execution I see indeed the Adaptive Dynamic Sampling in the trace file, the errror due to the exhausted CPU in the resource plan, and the directives that caused the Adaptive Dynamic Sampling:

 

 

So, there are some SQL Plan Directives that force the CBO to run ADS for this query.

This query touches three tables, so instead of relying on the DIRECTIVE_IDs, it’s better to get the directives by object name:

Solution

At this point, the solution is the same already pointed out in one of my previous blog posts: disable the directives individually!

This very same PL/SQL block must be run on ALL the 12c databases affected by this Adaptive Dynamic Sampling problem on the sql_id auyf8px9ywc6j.

If you have just migrated the database to 12c, it would make even more sense to programmatically “inject” the disabled SQL Plan Directives into every freshly created or upgraded 12c database (until Oracle releases a patch for this non-bug).

It comes without saying that the next execution has been very quick, consuming almost no CPU and without using ADS.

HTH

Ludovico

 

SQL Plan Directives: they’re always good… except when they’re bad!

The new Oracle 12c optimizer adaptive features are just great and work well out of the box in most cases.

Recently, however,¬† I’ve experienced my very first problem with SQL Plan Directives migrating a database to 12c, so I would like to share it.

Disclaimer 1: this is a specific problem that I found on ONE system. My solution may not fit with your environment, don’t use it if you are not sure about what you’re doing!

Disclaimer 2: despite I had this problem with a single SPD, I like adaptive features and I encourage to use them!!

Problem: a query takes a sub-second in 11gR2, in 12c it takes 12 seconds or more.

V_TAB_PROP is a very simple view. It just selects a central table “TAB” and then takes different properties by joining¬† a property table “TAB_PROP”.

To do that, it does 11 joins on the same property table.

On the property table, TAB_PROP_ID and PROP_ID are unique (they compose the pk), so nested loops and index unique scans are the best way to get this data.
The table is 1500Mb big and the index 1000Mb.

This was the plan in 11g:

In 12c, the plan switches to adaptive, and half of the joins are converted to hash joins / full table scans:

However, the inflection point is never reached. The execution keeps the default plan that has half of the joins HJ and the other half NL.

The problem in this case is the SQL Directive. Why?

There are to many distinct values for TAB_ID and the data is very skewed.

The histogram on that column is OK and it always leads to the correct plan (with the adaptive features disabled).
But there are still some “minor” misestimates, and the optimizer sometimes decides to create a SQL Plan directive:

The Directive instructs the optimizer to do a dynamic sampling, but with a such big and skewed table this is not ok, so the Dynamic sampling result is worse than using the histogram. I can check it by simplifying the query to just one join:

What’s the fix?

I’ve tried to drop the directive first, but it reappears as soon as there are new misestimates.
The best solution in my case has been to disable the directive, an operation that can be done easily with the DBMS_SPD package:

I did this on a QAS environment.
Because the production system is not migrated to 12c yet, it’s wise to import these disabled directives in production before the optimizer creates and enables them.

Off course, the directives can’t be created for objects that do not exist, the import¬† has to be done after the objects migrate to the 12c version.

Because the SQL Plan Directives are tied to specific objects and not specific queries, they can fix many statements at once, but in case like this one, they can compromise several statements!

Monitoring the creation of new directives is an important task as it may indicate misestimates/lack of statistics on one side or execution plan changes on the other one.