PostgreSQL Large Objects and space usage (part 2)

In my previous post I showed how large objects use space inside the table pg_largeobject when inserted.

Let’s see something more:

The table had 2 large objects (for a total of 1024 records):

Let’s try to add another random-padded file:

As expected, because a random sequence of characters cannot be compressed, the size increased again by 171 blocks (see my previous post for the explanation)

If you read this nice series of blog posts by Frits Hoogland, you should know about the pageinspect extension and the t_infomask 16-bit mask.

Let’s install it and check the content of the pg_largeobjects pages:

We already know the mathematics, but we love having all the pieces come together 🙂

We know that: The page header is 24 bytes, and that the line pointers use 4 bytes for each tuple.

The first 4 pages have the lower offset to 452 bytes means that we have (452-24)/4 = 107 tuples.

The 5th page (page number 4) has the lower to 360: (360-24)/4=84 tuples.

The remaining pages have the lower to 36: (36-24)/4 = 3 tuples.

Let’s check if we are right:

🙂
Now, let’s delete the 1Mb file and check the space again:

The space is still used and the tuples are still there.

However, we can check that the tuples are no longer used by checking the validity of their t_xmax. In fact, according to the documentation, if the XMAX is invalid the row is at the latest version:

[…] a tuple is the latest version of its row iff XMAX is invalid or t_ctid points to itself (in which case, if XMAX is valid, the tuple is either locked or deleted). […]
 (from htup_details.h lines 87-89).
We have to check the infomask against the 12th bit (2048, or 0x0800)
#define HEAP_XMAX_INVALID       0x0800  /* t_xmax invalid/aborted */

Here we go. The large objects are split in compressed chunks that internally behave the same way as regular rows!

If we import another lob we will see that the space is not reused:

Flagging the tuples as reusable is the vacuum’s job:

The normal vacuum does not release the empty space, but it can be reused now:

If we unlink the lob again and we do a vacuum full, the empty space is released:

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Ludovico

Oracle ACE Director and Computing Engineer at CERN
Ludovico is an Oracle ACE Director, frequent speaker and community contributor, working as Computing Engineer at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in Switzerland.

One thought on “PostgreSQL Large Objects and space usage (part 2)

  1. Pingback: PostgreSQL Large Objects and space usage (part 2) - Ludovico Caldara - Blogs - triBLOG

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